Management Information Systems (MIS)

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Management information system

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A management information system (MIS) is a system or process that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively [1]. Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization.[2] Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems.[2]

Contents
[hide]

* 1 Overview
* 2 See also
* 3 References
* 4 External links

[edit] Overview

At the start, works in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s), and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Previously, data had to be separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization. Later, data was distinguished from information, and instead of the collection of mass of data, important, and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored.

Early on, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over time these applications became more complex and began to store increasing amounts of information while also interlinking with previously separate information systems. As more and more data was stored and linked man began to analyze this information into further detail, creating entire management reports from the raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications, which were developed to provide managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited to): decision support systems, resource and people management applications, ERP, SCM, CRM, project management and database retrieval application.

An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. In a way it is a documented report of the activities that were planned and executed. According to Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers." [3]

The terms MIS and information system are often confused. Information systems include systems that are not intended for decision making. The area of study called MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information technology management. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline. MIS has also some differences with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) as ERP incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support.

Any successful MIS must support a businesses Five Year Plan or its equivalent. It must provide for reports based up performance analysis in areas critical to that plan, with feedback loops that allow for titivation of every aspect of the business, including recruitment and training regimens. In effect, MIS must not only indicate how things are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. These reports would include performance relative to cost centers and projects that drive profit or loss, and do so in such a way that indentifies individual accountability, and in virtual real-time.

Professor Allen S. Lee states that "…research in the information systems field examines more than the technological system, or just the social system, or even the two side by side; in addition, it investigates the phenomena that emerge when the two interact." [4].
[edit] See also

* Bachelor of Computer Information Systems
* Computing
* Management
* Business Intelligence
* Business Performance Management
* Business rules
* Data Mining
o Predictive analytics
o Purchase order request
* Enterprise Information System
* Enterprise Architecture
* Information technology governance
* Information technology management
* Knowledge management
* Management by objectives
* Online analytical processing
* Online office suite
* Information Technology

[edit] References

1. ^ http://www.occ.treas.gov/handbook/mis.pdf
2. ^ a b O’Brien, J (1999). Management Information Systems – Managing Information Technology in the Internetworked Enterprise. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071123733.
3. ^ Kotler, Philip; Keller, Kevin Lane (2006). Marketing Management (12 ed.). Pearson Education.
4. ^ Lee |first= Allen S. |authorlink= Allen S Lee |coauthors= |year= 2001 |month= |title=Editor’s Comments |journal= MIS Quarterly |volume=25 |issue=1 |pages=iii-vii |id= |url= |format= |accessdate= |nopp= true }}

[edit] External links

* Computer and Information Systems Managers (U.S. Department of Labor)
* Index of Information Systems Journals
* MIS Web sites (Bournemouth University)
* MIS Links (University of York)
* Executive Information Systems: Minimising the risk of development

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_information_system"
Categories: Business software | Information systems | Decision theory | Information technology management | Management systems
Hidden categories: Articles needing cleanup from April 2010 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles to be expanded from April 2010 | All articles to be expanded
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