Knowledge Management (KM)

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Knowledge management

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Knowledge management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice.

An established discipline since 1991 (see Nonaka 1991), KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, and library and information sciences (Alavi & Leidner 1999). More recently, other fields have started contributing to KM research; these include information and media, computer science, public health, and public policy.

Many large companies and non-profit organizations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their 'business strategy', 'information technology', or 'human resource management' departments (Addicott, McGivern & Ferlie 2006). Several consulting companies also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding KM to these organizations.

Knowledge management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organization. KM efforts overlap with organizational learning, and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. KM efforts can help individuals and groups to share valuable organizational insights, to reduce redundant work, to avoid reinventing the wheel per se, to reduce training time for new employees, to retain intellectual capital as employees turnover in an organization, and to adapt to changing environments and markets (McAdam & McCreedy 2000) (Thompson & Walsham 2004).
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
* 2 Research
o 2.1 Dimensions
o 2.2 Strategies
o 2.3 Motivations
o 2.4 Technologies
o 2.5 Knowledge management and collaboration
o 2.6 Knowledge managers
* 3 See also
* 4 References
o 4.1 Notes
* 5 External links

[edit] History

KM efforts have a long history, to include on-the-job discussions, formal apprenticeship, discussion forums, corporate libraries, professional training and mentoring programs. More recently, with increased use of computers in the second half of the 20th century, specific adaptations of technologies such as knowledge bases, expert systems, knowledge repositories, group decision support systems, intranets, and computer supported cooperative work have been introduced to further enhance such efforts.[1]

In 1999, the term personal knowledge management was introduced which refers to the management of knowledge at the individual level (Wright 2005).

In terms of the enterprise, early collections of case studies recognized the importance of knowledge management dimensions of strategy, process, and measurement (Morey, Maybury & Thuraisingham 2002). Key lessons learned included: people, and the cultures that influence their behaviors, are the single most critical resource for successful knowledge creation, dissemination, and application; cognitive, social, and organizational learning processes are essential to the success of a knowledge management strategy; and measurement, benchmarking, and incentives are essential to accelerate the learning process and to drive cultural change. In short, knowledge management programs can yield impressive benefits to individuals and organizations if they are purposeful, concrete, and action-oriented.

More recently with the advent of the Web 2.0, the concept of knowledge management has evolved towards a vision more based on people participation and emergence. This line of evolution is termed Enterprise 2.0 (McAfee 2006). However, there is an ongoing debate and discussions (Lakhani & McAfee 2007) as to whether Enterprise 2.0 is just a fad that does not bring anything new or useful or whether it is, indeed, the future of knowledge management (Davenport 2008).
[edit] Research

KM emerged as a scientific discipline in the earlier 1990s. It was initially supported solely by practitioners, when Scandia hired Leif Edvinsson of Sweden as the world’s first Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO). Hubert Saint-Onge (formerly of CIBC, Canada), started investigating various sides of KM long before that. The objective of CKOs is to manage and maximize the intangible assets of their organizations. Gradually, CKOs became interested in not only practical but also theoretical aspects of KM, and the new research field was formed. The KM ideas taken up by academics, such as Ikujiro Nonaka (Hitotsubashi University), Hirotaka Takeuchi (Hitotsubashi University), Thomas H. Davenport (Babson College) and Baruch Lev (New York University). In 2001, Thomas A. Stewart, former editor at FORTUNE Magazine and subsequently the editor of Harvard Business Review, published a cover story highlighting the importance of intellectual capital of organizations. Since its establishment, the KM discipline has been gradually moving towards academic maturity. First, there is a trend towards higher cooperation among academics; particularly, there has been a drop in single-authored publications. Second, the role of practitioners has changed. Their contribution to academic research has been dramatically declining from 30% of overall contributions up to 2002, to only 10% by 2009 (Serenko et al. 2010).

A broad range of thoughts on the KM discipline exists with no unanimous agreement; approaches vary by author and school. As the discipline matures, academic debates have increased regarding both the theory and practice of KM, to include the following perspectives:

* Techno-centric with a focus on technology, ideally those that enhance knowledge sharing and creation.
* Organizational with a focus on how an organization can be designed to facilitate knowledge processes best.
* Ecological with a focus on the interaction of people, identity, knowledge, and environmental factors as a complex adaptive system akin to a natural ecosystem.

Regardless of the school of thought, core components of KM include People, Processes, Technology (or) Culture, Structure, Technology, depending on the specific perspective (Spender & Scherer 2007). Different KM schools of thought include various lenses through which KM can be viewed and explained, to include:

* community of practice (Wenger, McDermott & Synder 2001) [2]
* social network analysis [3]
* intellectual capital (Bontis & Choo 2002) [4]
* information theory [5] (McInerney 2002)
* complexity science [6][7]
* constructivism [8] (Nanjappa & Grant 2003)

The practical relevance of academic research in KM has been questioned (Ferguson 2005) with action research suggested as having more relevance (Andriessen 2004) and the need to translate the findings presented in academic journals to a practice (Booker, Bontis & Serenko 2008).
[edit] Dimensions

Different frameworks for distinguishing between knowledge exist. One proposed framework for categorizing the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge represents internalized knowledge that an individual may not be consciously aware of, such as how he or she accomplishes particular tasks. At the opposite end of the spectrum, explicit knowledge represents knowledge that the individual holds consciously in mental focus, in a form that can easily be communicated to others.[9] (Alavi & Leidner 2001).

Early research suggested that a successful KM effort needs to convert internalized tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge in order to share it, but the same effort must also permit individuals to internalize and make personally meaningful any codified knowledge retrieved from the KM effort. Subsequent research into KM suggested that a distinction between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge represented an oversimplification and that the notion of explicit knowledge is self-contradictory. Specifically, for knowledge to be made explicit, it must be translated into information (i.e., symbols outside of our heads) (Serenko & Bontis 2004). Later on, Ikujiro Nonaka proposed a model (SECI for Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization) which considers a spiraling knowledge process interaction between explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995). In this model, knowledge follows a cycle in which implicit knowledge is 'extracted' to become explicit knowledge, and explicit knowledge is 're-internalized' into implicit knowledge. More recently, together with Georg von Krogh, Nonaka returned to his earlier work in an attempt to move the debate about knowledge conversion forwards (Nonaka & von Krogh 2009)

A second proposed framework for categorizing the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between embedded knowledge of a system outside of a human individual (e.g., an information system may have knowledge embedded into its design) and embodied knowledge representing a learned capability of a human body’s nervous and endocrine systems (Sensky 2002).

A third proposed framework for categorizing the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between the exploratory creation of "new knowledge" (i.e., innovation) vs. the transfer or exploitation of "established knowledge" within a group, organization, or community. Collaborative environments such as communities of practice or the use of social computing tools can be used for both knowledge creation and transfer .[10]
[edit] Strategies

Knowledge may be accessed at three stages: before, during, or after KM-related activities. Different organizations have tried various knowledge capture incentives, including making content submission mandatory and incorporating rewards into performance measurement plans. Considerable controversy exists over whether incentives work or not in this field and no consensus has emerged.

One strategy to KM involves actively managing knowledge (push strategy). In such an instance, individuals strive to explicitly encode their knowledge into a shared knowledge repository, such as a database, as well as retrieving knowledge they need that other individuals have provided to the repository .[11] This is also commonly known as the Codification approach to KM.

Another strategy to KM involves individuals making knowledge requests of experts associated with a particular subject on an ad hoc basis (pull strategy). In such an instance, expert individual(s) can provide their insights to the particular person or people needing this (Snowden 2002). This is also commonly known as the Personalization approach to KM.

Other knowledge management strategies for companies include:

* rewards (as a means of motivating for knowledge sharing)
* storytelling (as a means of transferring tacit knowledge)
* cross-project learning
* after action reviews
* knowledge mapping (a map of knowledge repositories within a company accessible by all)
* communities of practice
* expert directories (to enable knowledge seeker to reach to the experts)
* best practice transfer
* competence management (systematic evaluation and planning of competences of individual organization members)
* proximity & architecture (the physical situation of employees can be either conducive or obstructive to knowledge sharing)
* master-apprentice relationship
* collaborative technologies (groupware, etc.)
* knowledge repositories (databases, bookmarking engines, etc.)
* measuring and reporting intellectual capital (a way of making explicit knowledge for companies)
* knowledge brokers (some organizational members take on responsibility for a specific "field" and act as first reference on whom to talk about a specific subject)
* social software (wikis, social bookmarking, blogs, etc.)

[edit] Motivations

A number of claims exist as to the motivations leading organizations to undertake a KM effort .[12] Typical considerations driving a KM effort include:

* Making available increased knowledge content in the development and provision of products and services
* Achieving shorter new product development cycles
* Facilitating and managing innovation and organizational learning
* Leveraging the expertise of people across the organization
* Increasing network connectivity between internal and external individuals
* Managing business environments and allowing employees to obtain relevant insights and ideas appropriate to their work
* Solving intractable or wicked problems
* Managing intellectual capital and intellectual assets in the workforce (such as the expertise and know-how possessed by key individuals)

Debate exists whether KM is more than a passing fad, though increasing amount of research in this field may hopefully help to answer this question, as well as create consensus on what elements of KM help determine the success or failure of such efforts (Wilson 2002) .[13]
[edit] Technologies

Early KM technologies included online corporate yellow pages as expertise locators and document management systems. Combined with the early development of collaborative technologies (in particular Lotus Notes), KM technologies expanded in the mid-1990s. Subsequent KM efforts leveraged semantic technologies for search and retrieval and the development of e-learning tools for communities of practice [14] (Capozzi 2007).

More recently, development of social computing tools (such as bookmarks, blogs, and wikis) have allowed more unstructured, self-governing or ecosystem approaches to the transfer, capture and creation of knowledge, including the development of new forms of communities, networks, or matrixed organizations. However such tools for the most part are still based on text and code, and thus represent explicit knowledge transfer. These tools face challenges in distilling meaningful re-usable knowledge and ensuring that their content is transmissible through diverse channels [15](Andrus 2005).

Software tools in knowledge management are a collection of technologies and are not necessarily acquired as a single software solution. Furthermore, these knowledge management software tools have the advantage of using the organization existing information technology infrastructure. Organizations and business decision makers spend a great deal of resources and make significant investments in the latest technology, systems and infrastructure to support knowledge management. It is imperative that these investments are validated properly, made wisely and that the most appropriate technologies and software tools are selected or combined to facilitate knowledge management.

Knowledge management has also become a cornerstone in emerging business strategies such as Service Lifecycle Management (SLM) with companies increasingly turning to software vendors to enhance their efficiency in industries including, but not limited to, the aviation industry.[16]
[edit] Knowledge management and collaboration

Development of Web2.0 added new dimension to knowledge management process. The web-based collaborative tools, such as wiki, made it possible for corporate employees to continuously contribute and access information to / from central repository. Companies that implemented wiki-style knowledge base reported significant increase in productivity once the habit of contributing, sharing and accessing knowledge is instilled.

Virtual worlds further increased collaborative opportunities in the process of knowledge sharing. Unlike Web2.0 applications, in virtual worlds a team can work synchronously. The new generations of virtual worlds tools, allow the team not only meet and exchange ideas verbally, but document them by creating flow charts and diagrams of concepts, processes or procedures that are—explicitly or implicitly—are a part of the organizational knowledge base.
[edit] Knowledge managers
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009)

"Knowledge manager" is a role and designation that has gained popularity over the past decade. The role has evolved drastically from that of one involving the creation and maintenance of knowledge repositories to one that involves influencing the culture of an organization toward improved knowledge sharing, reuse, learning, collaboration and innovation. Knowledge management functions are associated with different departments in different organizations. It may be combined with Quality, Sales, HR, Innovation, Operations etc. and is likely to be determined by the KM motivation of that particular organization.

Knowledge managers have varied backgrounds ranging from Information Sciences to Business Management. An effective knowledge manager is likely to be someone who has a versatile skills portfolio and is comfortable with the concepts of organizational behavior/culture, processes, branding & marketing and collaborative technology.
[edit] See also
This "see also" section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant suggestions are given and that they are not red links, and consider integrating suggestions into the article itself.

* Competitive intelligence
* Complexity theory and organizations
* Collective intelligence
* Collective unconscious
* Concept map
* Data mining
* DIKW
* Enterprise content management
* Enterprise 2.0
* Enterprise bookmarking
* Enterprise social software
* Human-computer interaction
* Information ecology
* Knowledge community
* Knowledge economy
* Knowledge ecosystems

* Knowledge engineering
* Knowledge management software
* Knowledge market
* Knowledge representation
* Knowledge tagging
* Knowledge transfer
* Knowledge worker
* Knowledge-based theory of the firm
* Management information system
* Metaknowledge
* Ontology
* Organizational memory
* Personal information management
* Sensemaking
* Semantic web
* Social network
* Sociology of knowledge
* Value network analysis

[edit] References

* Addicott, Rachael; McGivern, Gerry; Ferlie, Ewan (2006). "Networks, Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management: NHS Cancer Networks". Public Money & Management 26 (2): 87–94. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=889992.
* Alavi, Maryam; Leidner, Dorothy E. (1999). "Knowledge management systems: issues, challenges, and benefits". Communications of the AIS 1 (2). http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=374117.
* Alavi, Maryam; Leidner, Dorothy E. (2001). "Review: Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues". MIS Quarterly 25 (1): 107–136. http://web.njit.edu/~jerry/CIS-677/Articles/Alavi-MISQ-2001.pdf.
* Andriessen, Daniel (2004). "Reconciling the rigor-relevance dilemma in intellectual capital research". The Learning Organization 11 (4/5): 393–401.
* Andrus, D. Calvin (2005). "The Wiki and the Blog: Toward a Complex Adaptive Intelligence Community". Studies in Intelligence 49 (3). http://ssrn.com/abstract=755904.
* Benbasat, Izak; Zmud, Robert (1999). "Empirical research in information systems: The practice of relevance". MIS Quarterly 23 (1): 3–16.
* Bontis, Nick; Choo, Chun Wei (2002). The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge. New York:Oxford University Press. ISBN 019513866X. http://choo.fis.toronto.edu/OUP/.
* Booker, Lorne; Bontis, Nick; Serenko, Alexander (2008). "The relevance of knowledge management and intellectual capital research". Knowledge and Process Management 15 (4): 235–246. http://foba.lakeheadu.ca/serenko/papers/Booker_Bontis_Serenko_KM_relevance.pdf.
* Capozzi, Marla M. (2007). "Knowledge Management Architectures Beyond Technology". First Monday 12 (6). http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1871/1754.
* Davenport, Tom (2008). "Enterprise 2.0: The New, New Knowledge Management?". Harvard Business Online, Feb. 19, 2008. http://discussionleader.hbsp.com/davenport/2008/02/enterprise_20_the_new_new_know_1.html.
* Ferguson, J (2005). "Bridging the gap between research and practice". Knowledge Management for Development Journal 1 (3): 46–54.
* Lakhani, Karim R.; McAfee (2007). "Case study on deleting "Enterprise 2.0" article". Courseware #9-607-712, Harvard Business School. http://courseware.hbs.edu/public/cases/wikipedia/.
* Liebowitz, Jay (2006). What they didn't tell you about knowledge management. pp. 2–3.
* McAdam, Rodney; McCreedy, Sandra (2000). "A Critique Of Knowledge Management: Using A Social Constructionist Model". New Technology, Work and Employment 15 (2). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=239247.
* McAfee, Andrew P. (2006). "Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration". Sloan Management Review 47 (3): 21–28. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/articles/2006/spring/47306/enterprise-the-dawn-of-emergent-collaboration/.
* McInerney, Claire (2002). "Knowledge Management and the Dynamic Nature of Knowledge". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53 (12): 1009–1018. http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~clairemc/KM_dynamic_nature.pdf.
* Morey, Daryl; Maybury, Mark; Thuraisingham, Bhavani (2002). Knowledge Management: Classic and Contemporary Works. Cambridge: MIT Press. p. 451. http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=8987.
* Nanjappa, Aloka; Grant, Michael M. (2003). "Constructing on constructivism: The role of technology". Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education 2 (1). http://ejite.isu.edu/Volume2No1/nanjappa.pdf.
* Nonaka, Ikujiro (1991). "The knowledge creating company". Harvard Business Review 69 (6 Nov-Dec): 96–104. http://hbr.harvardbusiness.org/2007/07/the-knowledge-creating-company/es.
* Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka (1995). The knowledge creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 284. http://books.google.com/books?id=B-qxrPaU1-MC.
* Nonaka, Ikujiro; von Krogh, Georg (2009). "Tacit Knowledge and Knowledge Conversion: Controversy and Advancement in Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory". Organization Science 20 (3): 635-652. http://zonecours.hec.ca/documents/H2010-1-2241390.S2-TacitKnowledgeandKnowledgeConversion-ControversyandAdvancementinOrganizationalKnowledgeCreation.pdf.
* Sensky, Tom (2002). "Knowledge Management". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 8 (5): 387–395. doi:10.1192/apt.8.5.387. http://apt.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/8/5/387.
* Snowden, Dave (2002). "Complex Acts of Knowing - Paradox and Descriptive Self Awareness". Journal of Knowledge Management, Special Issue 6 (2): 100–111. doi:10.1108/13673270210424639. http://www.cognitive-edge.com/articledetails.php?articleid=13.
* Spender, J.-C.; Scherer, Andreas Georg (2007). "The Philosophical Foundations of Knowledge Management: Editors' Introduction". Organization 14 (1): 5–28. http://ssrn.com/abstract=958768.
* Serenko, Alexander; Bontis, Nick (2004). "Meta-review of knowledge management and intellectual capital literature: citation impact and research productivity rankings". Knowledge and Process Management 11 (3): 185–198. doi:10.1002/kpm.203. http://www.business.mcmaster.ca/mktg/nbontis//ic/publications/KPMSerenkoBontis.pdf.
* Serenko, Alexander; Bontis, Nick; Booker, Lorne; Sadeddin, Khaled; Hardie, Timothy (2010). "A scientometric analysis of knowledge management and intellectual capital academic literature (1994-2008)". Journal of Knowledge Management 14 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1108/13673271011015534. http://foba.lakeheadu.ca/serenko/papers/Serenko_Bontis_JKM_MetaAnalysis_Published.pdf.
* Thompson, Mark P.A.; Walsham, Geoff (2004). "Placing Knowledge Management in Context". Journal of Management Studies 41 (5): 725–747. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=559300.
* Wenger, Etienne; McDermott, Richard; Synder, Richard (2002). Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge - Seven Principles for Cultivating Communities of Practice. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. pp. 107–136. ISBN 1578513308. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/2855.html.
* Wilson, T.D. (2002). "The nonsense of 'knowledge management'". Information Research 8 (1). http://informationr.net/ir/8-1/paper144.html.
* Wright, Kirby (2005). "Personal knowledge management: supporting individual knowledge worker performance". Knowledge Management Research and Practice 3 (3): 156–165. doi:10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500061.

[edit] Notes

1. ^ "Introduction to Knowledge Management". Unc.edu. http://www.unc.edu/~sunnyliu/inls258/Introduction_to_Knowledge_Management.html. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
2. ^ (PDF). http://www.crito.uci.edu/noah/HOIT/HOIT%20Papers/TeacherBridge.pdf. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
3. ^ (PDF). http://www.ischool.washington.edu/mcdonald/ecscw03/papers/groth-ecscw03-ws.pdf. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
4. ^ Secretary of Defense Corporate Fellows Program; Observations in Knowledge Management: Leveraging the Intellectual Capital of a Large, Global Organization with Technology, Tools and Policies. IBM, Global Business Services. 2002. http://www.ndu.edu/sdcfp/reports/2007Reports/IBM07%20.doc. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
5. ^ "Information Architecture and Knowledge Management". Iakm.kent.edu. http://iakm.kent.edu/programs/information-use/iu-curriculum.html. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
6. ^ Snowden, Dave (2002). "Complex Acts of Knowing - Paradox and Descriptive Self Awareness". Journal of Knowledge Management, Special Issue 6 (2): 100 - 111.
7. ^ SSRN-Knowledge Ecosystems: A Theoretical Lens for Organizations Confronting Hyperturbulent Environments by David Bray. Papers.ssrn.com. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=984600. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
8. ^ http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/wyssusek02sociopragmatic.html
9. ^ "SSRN-Literature Review - Knowledge Management Research at the Organizational Level by David Bray". Papers.ssrn.com. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=991169. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
10. ^ "SSRN-Exploration, Exploitation, and Knowledge Management Strategies in Multi-Tier Hierarchical Organizations Experiencing Environmental Turbulence by David Bray". Papers.ssrn.com. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=961043. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
11. ^ (PDF). http://www.cs.fiu.edu/~chens/PDF/IRI00_Rathau.pdf. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
12. ^ http://tecom.cox.smu.edu/abasu/itom6032/kmlect.pdf
13. ^ (PDF). http://myweb.whitman.syr.edu/yogesh/papers/WhyKMSFail.pdf. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
14. ^ "p217-ricardo.pdf" (PDF). http://elvis.slis.indiana.edu/irpub/HT/2001/pdf53.pdf. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
15. ^ "Knowledge Management". www.systems-thinking.org. http://www.systems-thinking.org/kmgmt/kmgmt.htm. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
16. ^ Aviation Industry Group. "Service life-cycle management"[dead link], Aircraft Technology: Engineering & Maintenance, February-March, 2005.

[edit] External links

* Knowledge management at the Open Directory Project

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