Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC)


The first and most glaring problem with the file system approach is that even the simplest data-retrieval task requires extensive programming in a third-generation language (3GL). A 3GL requires the programmer to specify both what must be done and how it is to be done. Examples of 3GLs include Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL), Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC), and FORmula TRANslation (FORTRAN). As you will learn in upcoming chapters, more modern databases use a fourth-generation language (4GL). A 4GL allows the user to specify what must be done without specifying how it must be done.

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